Curr Drug Saf. 2014 Jun 1; DOI: 10.2174/1574886309666140601210422
Study objectives. Sleep maintenance problems are common, hence treatments enabling patients to fall asleep more rapidly after middle-of-the-night (MOTN) awakenings, without impairing next morning alertness, are needed. This literature review compares the effects of MOTN administration of various hypnotics on morning driving ability, a potentially dangerous daily activity under conditions of impairment. Methods. A literature search was conducted identifying on-the-road driving studies examining the effects of MOTN administration of hypnotics on morning driving performance. In a standardized 100-km highway driving test in normal traffic, subjects were instructed to drive with a steady lateral position and constant speed of 95 km/h. The primary outcome measure of the driving test is the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP, cm), i.e. weaving of the car. Results. Four driving studies were identified. Driving performance after MOTN administration of traditional benzodiazepine hypnotics was not examined. Zolpidem (10 mg and 20 mg, oral immediate release tablets) significantly impaired driving in a dose-dependent manner, when tested 4 hours after MOTN administration. Also, gaboxadol (15 mg) and zopiclone (7.5 mg) significantly impaired next-morning driving after MOTN administration. In contrast, sublingual zolpidem (3.5 mg) and zaleplon (10 mg and 20 mg) did not significantly affect driving 4 hours after MOTN administration. Conclusions. Driving was not affected 4 hours after MOTN administration of sublingual zolpidem (3.5 mg) or zaleplon (10 mg and 20 mg). Significant driving impairment was found after MOTN administration of zolpidem (10 and 20 mg), gaboxadol (15 mg), and zopiclone (7.5 mg).
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ABC News Madeleine Morris 19 March 2014
The practice of mixing sleeping pills with alcohol and energy drinks is widespread in the National Rugby League, a club doctor has told the ABC.
John Mayhew, the doctor for the Auckland-based New Zealand Warriors, says he also believes the problem is widespread in other codes.
His comments come as the NRL begins testing players for the sleeping pill Stilnox and other prescription drugs, in addition to existing tests for steroids and other performance-enhancing substances.
PLoS ONE 2013; 8(6): e67459; DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0067459
BACKGROUND: While an association between zolpidem use and fracture and road accident was previously proposed, this study aimed to further explore the frequency and risk of a wide spectrum of injuries in subjects prescribed with zolpidem in Taiwan. METHODS: We identified 77,036 subjects who received Zolpidem treatment between 2005 and 2007. We randomly selected 77,036 comparison subjects who were frequency-matched based-on their demographic profiles. We individually tracked each subject for a 90-day period to identify those who subsequently suffered an injury. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratio of injury between the two groups. RESULTS: The incidence rate of injury during the 90-day follow-up period for the total subjects was 18.11 (95% CI = 17.69-18.54) per 100 person-years; this was 24.35 (95% CI = 23.66-25.05) and 11.86 (95% CI = 11.39-12.36) for the study and comparison cohort, respectively. After adjusting for demographic variables, the hazard ratio (HR) of injury during the 90-day follow-up period for study subjects was 1.83 (95% CI = 1.73-1.94) that of comparison subjects. Additionally, compared to comparison subjects, the adjusted HR of injury during the 90-day follow-up period for study subjects who were prescribed Zolpidem for >30 days was as high as 2.17 (95% CI = 2.05-2.32). The adjusted HR of injury to blood vessels for study subjects was particularly high when compared to comparison subjects (HR = 6.34; 95% CI = 1.37-29.38). CONCLUSIONS: We found that patients prescribed with Zolpidem were at a higher risk for a wide range of injuries.
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Sydney Morning Herald Steve Larkin & Rob Forsaith 22 February 2013
Eamon Sullivan apologised for being a ringleader as he and five other top Australian swimmers admitted lying about taking a banned drug before the London Olympics.
All six men’s freestyle relay swimmers, including world champion James Magnussen, could be banned from future Olympics for their abuse of the banned sedative Stilnox.
Brisbane Times Bradley Partridge & Wayne Hall 25 February 2013
Zolpidem (sold as Stilnox in Australia) is a prescription drug for the treatment of insomnia. So what role does it play in the lives of elite athletes?
In elite sports that require frequent international travel, such as swimming, Stilnox may be prescribed to help athletes cope with changes in their sleep cycle.
Stilnox is used for related reasons in other professional sporting leagues.
The Australian Glenda Korporaal 3 August 2012
SIX-TIME Olympic shooter Russell Mark has lashed out at the Australian Olympic Committee’s last-minute ban on the sleeping drug Stilnox.
in-Pharma Technologist.com Gareth Macdonald 10 July 2012
An insomnia treatment linked to sleepwalking and sleep driving should stay on the market according to the Australian Therapeutic Good Administration (TGA).