Category Archives: zJournal articles

Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of mosque imams regarding organ donation.

Ann Transplant. 2014 Nov 17;19:598-603. doi: 10.12659/AOT.891370

BACKGROUND:

In this study we aimed to determine knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of mosque imams regarding organ donation.

MATERIAL/METHODS:

This study involved 322 mosque imams working in Kahramanmaras, a city in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. A questionnaire was used to determine participants’ sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding organ donation.

RESULTS:

Out of a total of 322 participants, 253 (78.6%) stated that organ donation is allowed in Islam, while 5 (1.6%) expressed that it is religiously forbidden, and 64 (19.9%) stated that they have no idea about the issue. Only 2 (0.6%) participants were registered organ/tissue donors, wile 320 (99.4%) were not. Out of all participants, 72 (22.4%) imams were willing to donate organs. Forty-six (14.3%) imams had previously received basic training about organ donation, and 166 (51.6%) were willing to attend a related training. Television programs and healthcare professionals were the most common means of learning about organ donation. Educational programs by healthcare professionals for imams and the public were proposed to be effective in increasing the number of organ donations.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study revealed that the knowledge of mosque imams regarding organ donation is poor and they had little willingness to donate their organs. Interestingly, many imams had no knowledge about organ donation under Islam. Collaboration of media, healthcare professionals, and mosque imams regarding organ donation might help increase organ donation.

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Organ donation after circulatory death: an update.

Eur J Emerg Med. 2014 Oct;21(5):324-9. doi: 10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000082

There is an ongoing shortfall of organs for donation in the UK and worldwide. Strategies including donation after circulatory death (DCD), living donation and better identification of potential donors are attempting to increase the number of donors and donated organs. The number of DCD donors in the UK increased by 808% from 37 to 336 between 2001 and 2010 and this is continuing to increase. The most common organs donated from DCD donors are the kidneys, but there is increasing experience of liver, lung and pancreas transplantation. The process of DCD varies between different countries and institutions. The outcome of DCD transplantation has been largely encouraging, particularly for kidneys. The increase in DCD has led to an appraisal of issues that may arise during the donation process; these include the Lazarus phenomenon, the dead donor rule, perimortem interventions, public opinion and conflict of interest for clinicians.

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The dead donor rule: effect on the virtuous practice of medicine.

J Med Ethics. 2014 Jul;40(7):496-500

OBJECTIVE:

The President’s Council on Bioethics in 2008 reaffirmed the necessity of the dead donor rule and the legitimacy of the current criteria for diagnosing both neurological and cardiac death. In spite of this report,many have continued to express concerns about the ethics of donation after circulatory death, the validity of determining death using neurological criteria and the necessity for maintaining the dead donor rule for organ donation. I analysed the dead donor rule for its effect on the virtuous practice of medicine by physicians caring for potential organ donors.

RESULTS:

The dead donor rule consistently impedes physicians in fulfilling their primary duty to act for the good of their prospective donor patients. This compromises the virtue of fidelity. It also weakens many other virtues necessary for physicians to provide excellent end-of-life care.

CONCLUSIONS:

The dead donor rule, while ethically powerful in theory, loses its force during translation to the bedside. This is so because the rule mandates simultaneous life and death within the same body for organ donation, a biological status that is inherently contradictory. The rule should be rejected as an ethical norm governing vital organ transplantation at the end of life. Its elimination will strengthen the doctor–patient relationship and foster trustworthiness in organ procurement.

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Improving syphilis screening in deceased organ donors.

Transplantation. 2015 Feb;99(2):438-43. doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000000323

BACKGROUND:

Current U.S. policy requires screening of all deceased organ donors for syphilis infection. To date, information on syphilis test performance in this population is limited.

METHODS:

All donors with a positive rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and matched donors with negative RPR who were evaluated by one organ procurement organization from January 1, 2000, to September 30, 2012, were retrospectively tested, using retained, residual serum, with two alternate RPR tests and four treponemal-specific tests: A fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test, a microhemagglutination test, a chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), and a Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) test.

RESULTS:

Thirty-two of 3,555 (0.9%) potential deceased organ donors screened during the study period showed a positive RPR; 61 RPR-negative matched donor samples were studied as well. Thirteen (40.6%) of the RPR-positive donors were found to be false-positive based on confirmatory TP-PA. As compared to TP-PA, the sensitivity of the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption, microhemagglutination, and CLIA was 87.5%, 91.7% and 100%, respectively. The CLIA and TP-PA results were 100% concordant. Only 17 (53.1%) of the RPR-positive donors had a total of 46 organs recovered for transplantation.

CONCLUSION:

Current screening of deceased organ donors by RPR yields a significant number of false-positive results. Use of alternative tests or the routine use of confirmatory tests may reduce the frequency of false-positive results in deceased organ donors.

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Water Science & Technology – Contents Pages

Table of Contents  |  Volume 71 Number 12 2015

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False positive malaria rapid diagnostic test in returning traveler with typhoid fever.

BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Jul 9;14:377. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-377

BACKGROUND:

Rapid diagnostic tests play a pivotal role in the early diagnosis of malaria where microscopy or polymerase chain reaction are not immediately available.

CASE PRESENTATION:

We report the case of a 39 year old traveler to Canada who presented with fever, headache, and abdominal pain after visiting friends and relatives in India. While in India, the individual was not ill and had no signs or symptoms of malaria. Laboratory testing upon his return to Canada identified a false positive malaria rapid diagnostic (BinaxNOW® malaria) result for P. falciparum with coincident Salmonella Typhi bacteraemia without rheumatoid or autoimmune factors. Rapid diagnostic test false positivity for malaria coincided with the presence or absence of Salmonella Typhi in the blood.

CONCLUSIONS:

Clinicians should be aware that Salmonella Typhi infection may result in a false positive malaria rapid diagnostic test. The mechanism of this cross-reactivity is not clear.

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Quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections associated with international travel.

Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Nov 1;59(9):e139-41. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu505

We found a strong association between nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections in the United States and recent international travel by linking Salmonella Enteritidis data from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System and the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network.

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